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I am a software developer from Poland, currently working in banking industry. For the past few years I have been writing software in Java, however I actively seek for a close alternative. Certified in SCJP, SCJD, SCWCD and SCBCD, used to be active on StackOverflow. I feel comfortable at the back-end, however recently rediscovered front-end development. In spare time I love cycling. Tomasz is a DZone MVB and is not an employee of DZone and has posted 86 posts at DZone. You can read more from them at their website. View Full User Profile

URL shortener service in 42 lines of code in... Java (?!)

08.28.2014
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Apparently writing a URL shortener service is the new "Hello, world!" in the IoT/microservice/era world. It all started with A URL shortener service in 45 lines of Scala - neat piece of Scala, flavoured with Spray and Redis for storage. This was quickly followed with A url shortener service in 35 lines of Clojure and even URL Shortener in 43 lines of Haskell. So my inner anti-hipster asked: how long would it be in Java? But not plain Java, for goodness' sake. Spring Boot with Spring Data Redis are a good starting point. All we need is a simple controller handling GET and POST:

import com.google.common.hash.Hashing;
import org.apache.commons.validator.routines.UrlValidator;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.data.redis.core.StringRedisTemplate;
import org.springframework.http.*;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.*;

import javax.servlet.http.*;
import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;

@org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.EnableAutoConfiguration
@org.springframework.stereotype.Controller
public class UrlShortener {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(UrlShortener.class, args);
    }

    @Autowired private StringRedisTemplate redis;

    @RequestMapping(value = "/{id}", method = RequestMethod.GET)
    public void redirect(@PathVariable String id, HttpServletResponse resp) throws Exception {
        final String url = redis.opsForValue().get(id);
        if (url != null)
            resp.sendRedirect(url);
        else
            resp.sendError(HttpServletResponse.SC_NOT_FOUND);
    }

    @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.POST)
    public ResponseEntity<String> save(HttpServletRequest req) {
        final String queryParams = (req.getQueryString() != null) ? "?" + req.getQueryString() : "";
        final String url = (req.getRequestURI() + queryParams).substring(1);
        final UrlValidator urlValidator = new UrlValidator(new String[]{"http", "https"});
        if (urlValidator.isValid(url)) {
            final String id = Hashing.murmur3_32().hashString(url, StandardCharsets.UTF_8).toString();
            redis.opsForValue().set(id, url);
            return new ResponseEntity<>("http://mydomain.com/" + id, HttpStatus.OK);
        } else
            return new ResponseEntity<>(HttpStatus.BAD_REQUEST);
    }
}
The code is nicely self-descriptive and is functionally equivalent to a version in Scala. I didn't try to it squeeze too much to keep line count as short as possible, code above is quite typical with few details:

  • I don't normally use wildcard imports
  • I don't use fully qualified class names (I wanted to save one import line, I admit)
  • I surround if/else blocks with braces
  • I almost never use field injection, ugliest brother in inversion of control family. Instead I would go for constructor to allow testing with mocked Redis:

    private final StringRedisTemplate redis;
    
    @Autowired
    public UrlShortener(StringRedisTemplate redis) {
        this.redis = redis;
    }
    
The thing I struggled the most was... obtaining the original, full URL. Basically I needed everything after .com or port. No bloody way (neither servlets, nor Spring MVC), hence the awkward getQueryString() fiddling. You can use the service as follows - creating shorter URL:

$ curl -vX POST localhost:8080/https://www.google.pl/search?q=tomasz+nurkiewicz

> POST /https://www.google.pl/search?q=tomasz+nurkiewicz HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.30.0
> Host: localhost:8080
> Accept: */*
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Server: Apache-Coyote/1.1
< Content-Type: text/plain;charset=ISO-8859-1
< Content-Length: 28
< Date: Sat, 23 Aug 2014 20:47:40 GMT
<
http://mydomain.com/50784f51
Redirecting through shorter URL:

$ curl -v localhost:8080/50784f51

> GET /50784f51 HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.30.0
> Host: localhost:8080
> Accept: */*
>
< HTTP/1.1 302 Found
< Server: Apache-Coyote/1.1
< Location: https://www.google.pl/search?q=tomasz+nurkiewicz
< Content-Length: 0
< Date: Sat, 23 Aug 2014 20:48:00 GMT
<
For completeness, here is a build file in Gradle (maven would work as well), skipped in all previous solutions:

buildscript {
    repositories {
        mavenLocal()
        maven { url "http://repo.spring.io/libs-snapshot" }
        mavenCentral()
    }
    dependencies {
        classpath 'org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-gradle-plugin:1.1.5.RELEASE'
    }
}

apply plugin: 'java'
apply plugin: 'spring-boot'

sourceCompatibility = '1.8'

repositories {
    mavenLocal()
    maven { url 'http://repository.codehaus.org' }
    maven { url 'http://repo.spring.io/milestone' }
    mavenCentral()
}

dependencies {
    compile "org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-web:1.1.5.RELEASE"
    compile "org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-redis:1.1.5.RELEASE"
    compile 'com.google.guava:guava:17.0'
    compile 'org.apache.commons:commons-lang3:3.3.2'
    compile 'commons-validator:commons-validator:1.4.0'
    compile 'org.apache.tomcat.embed:tomcat-embed-el:8.0.9'
    compile "org.aspectj:aspectjrt:1.8.1"

    runtime "cglib:cglib-nodep:3.1"
}

tasks.withType(GroovyCompile) {
    groovyOptions.optimizationOptions.indy = true
}

task wrapper(type: Wrapper) {
    gradleVersion = '2.0'
}
Actually also 42 lines... That's the whole application, no XML, no descriptors, not setup.

I don't treat this exercise as just a dummy code golf for shortest, most obfuscated working code. URL shortener web service with Redis back-end is an interesting showcase of syntax and capabilities of a given language and ecosystem. Much more entertaining then a bunch of algorithmic problems, e.g. found in Rosetta code. Also it's a good bare minimum template for writing a REST service.

One important feature of original Scala implementation, that was somehow silently forgotten in all implementations, including this one, is that it's non-blocking. Both HTTP and Redis access is event-driven (reactive, all right, I said it), thus I suppose it can handle tens of thousands of clients simultaneously. This can't be achieved with blocking controllers backed by Tomcat. But still you have to admit such a service written in Java (not even Java 8!) is surprisingly concise, easy to follow and straightforward - none of the other solutions are that readable (this is of course subjective).

Waiting for others!
Published at DZone with permission of Tomasz Nurkiewicz, author and DZone MVB. (source)

(Note: Opinions expressed in this article and its replies are the opinions of their respective authors and not those of DZone, Inc.)

Comments

Daybreaker Gijane replied on Sun, 2014/08/31 - 2:19pm

Use MockitoJUnitRunner @InjectMocks to inject fields without the need to make them public.

If you want to inject an instance of something more than a mock - use @Spy for the instance you want to inject (or use an @InjectMocks dependency)

If you still want access to the private field (for example using a raw unit test without Mockito) then you can use ReflectionUtils to make your field accessible.

Philippe Lhoste replied on Sat, 2014/09/06 - 4:17am in response to: Daybreaker Gijane

We also use Jukito  to handle complex dependency injection (using Guice on the server, Gin on the GWT client) or to ease it (automatically creating mocks). Field injection are no problem for us... :-)

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